This is when there is a hole in the nasal septum. It can be caused by injury, previous surgery or cautery, drug use, inflammatory conditions and rarely cancer in the nose.

It can cause nasal obstruction, bleeding, crusting of dry mucus and whistling from the nose.

The perforation can be repaired surgically if it is less than 2 cm in diameter

The surgery

This consists of reconstructing the nasal septum. This is done by a combination of moving the existing lining inside the nose and grafting tissue to the septum in order to close the hole.